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“The word “”misogyny”” was coined in 1915 by the American psychologist William Moulton Marston when he described it as a form “”of sex antagonism peculiar to woman””. Since then, it has become part of our everyday lexicon and is usually used to refer to discrimination and hate towards women.
But what exactly does that mean? Well, misogyny can manifest itself in all kinds of ways — from gender-based wage inequality to sexual violence. And while we may think that these things are happening exclusively to women, people who suffer from them often define their oppression through male pronouns like him/his.
Here’s an example from Vox writer Lindy West on how she defines her own experience with sexism: “”I’ve been called “a man” so many times I now consider myself to be a feminist.”” So misandrist rhetoric is not just about women hating other women; it also includes those that have experienced any kind of victimisation based on their gender identity.
If you’re still confused about what misogyny actually means, here are some examples of different forms this prejudice takes:
1) Women being paid less than men doing similar work, which happens because society deems them “”less valuable””, according to a study published by Harvard University’s economist Claudia Goldin.
2) Research suggesting that female politicians don’t get elected because they lack charisma, whereas men do. According to research presented at a conference by political scientist Diana C. Mutz, even though more women than men hold college degrees and graduate school (both markers of higher intelligence), politics is dominated by white men.
3) Female genital mutilation, which is practised widely across Africa and Asia.
4) Domestic violence, including emotional abuse, physical assault, rape, and murder, which disproportionately affects women.
5) Homophobia, transphobia, and biphobia, which stems partly from the idea that there is no such thing as transgender people, but rather individuals who were assigned male at birth but identify as something else. This leads to the exclusion of trans people from public spaces and social events.
6) Racist attitudes towards Black people, Indigenous people, Asians, Jews, Arabs, Muslims, immigrants, gay people, disabled people, fat people, queer people, or anyone perceived as “”other”” in general.
7) Sexist stereotypes that portray women as “”sexual objects”” instead of human beings deserving of love.
8) Harassment and threats of sexual violence, especially online harassment, directed at women who refuse to dress provocatively or act in certain ways.
9) Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse blaming themselves for getting raped.
10) Men using rape jokes to make light of sexist violence against women.
11) Men defending their right to date multiple women, whether single or married, or denying that they have any responsibility in ending domestic violence.
12) Men justifying their actions by saying that women ask for it, or that “”it’s only fun if everyone gets off on it”” – meaning that women should enjoy having sex without feeling ashamed.
13) Men dismissing concerns about their partners’ drug use as unfounded hysteria.
14) Men believing that it’s acceptable to hit their partner once every few weeks or months.
15) Men refusing to believe that their wives would ever cheat on them.
16) Men accusing women of cheating on them, even when they’ve had affairs.
17) Refusing to acknowledge that men can also be victims of domestic violence.
18) Making comments about women’s looks, calling them names, taking pictures of them in unflattering clothes, or making offensive gestures, including catcalling, whistling, leering, etc.
19) Referring to someone as “”manny,”” “”honey bun,”” “”sweetie pie,”” “”babe,”” “”doll,”” “”girly girl,”” “”pussycat,”” “”cunt,”” “”slut,”” “”whore,”” “”hoe,”” “”she-devil,”” “”tramp,”” “”bitch,”” “”dyke,”” or “”lesbian”” as an insult.
20) Telling women that they’d look better without makeup or in heels.
21) Commenting on how women shouldn’t wear high heels or sexy clothing unless they want to attract attention from men.
22) Stereotyping women as irrational, overly emotional, incompetent, incapable of thinking rationally, too sensitive, too weak, too passive, or too aggressive.
23) Thinking that girls aren’t capable of learning math or science well enough to understand complex topics.
24) Believing that boys are inherently stronger and more intelligent than girls.
25) Denying that boys can feel pain.
26) Calling girls “”cute”” when they’re overweight, pregnant, menstruating, or dressed provocatively.
27) Saying that girls shouldn’t let boys know where they live.
28) Objectifying teenage girls as “”innocent virgins”” who need to be protected from everything outside of their home.
29) Accusing women of witchcraft when they seek help from doctors or gynaecologists.
30) Blaming women for contracting STIs.
31) Assuming that women are unable to handle money responsibly, leading to financial exploitation.
32) Viewing pregnancy as “”punishment”” for women.
33) Considering childbirth as “”natural punishment”” for women.
34) Treating mental health conditions, eating disorders, and substance abuse differently depending on the patient’s gender.
35) Calling rape “”corrective rape”” or “”male revenge rape”” to justify sexual violence.
36) Claiming that women lie about being sexually harassed or assaulted out of jealousy, spitefulness, or vindictiveness.
37) Using derogatory language towards women, such as referring to women as “”bitches”” or “”nags,”” or swearing at them.
38) Demanding that women apologize after they say anything critical about men.
39) Threatening violence towards women who refuse to comply with his demands.
40) Refusing to take responsibility for his emotions and behaviour.
41) Insulting women publicly, such as by asking whether they’re wearing pantyhose and a bra under their shirt during a board meeting.
42) Shouting over women, telling them to sit down, or yelling at them.
43) Asking women to smile, laugh, or give him the eye.
44) Refusing to accept that women might be competent enough to lead meetings, committees, classes, companies, sports teams, etc., although they might not be qualified to do so.
45) Not allowing women to speak at conferences or meetings, even if they are qualified to do so.
46) Allowing or encouraging male colleagues to interrupt discussions that involve women.
47) Looking directly into the eyes of a woman while talking to her, even when it isn’t required by etiquette.
48) Putting up signs saying “”No Girls Allowed”” in places where women go regularly.
49) Excluding women from social clubs or organisations because they belong to another group, such as the LGBT community.
50) Expecting women to perform household chores and childcare duties without pay. ”