What Are The 21 Types Of Disabilities
Disability is a word that has many meanings but in this article we are going to discuss about what exactly it means? According to World Health Organization (WHO) definition of disability is “A condition or state resulting from any degree of impairment in physical, intellectual, psychological or social functioning”. It can be caused due to mental illness, genetic disorders, brain injury, infectious diseases, congenital malformations, amputation, burns etc. There are 21 different categories of disabilities that exist today.
1. Blindness – This type of disability occurs when one eye or both eyes cannot function normally because of some damage or defect to the eye. The causes for blind people include cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes retinopathy, trauma, tumors, infections, degenerative diseases, stroke, birth defects, injuries, nutritional deficiencies, infections, war injuries, accidents etc.
2. Low vision – This type of disability is defined as having 20/200 or worse visual acuity in at least one eye or having less than 20/200 visual acuity in both eyes. The causes for low vision includes corneal scarring, macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, optic atrophy, diabetic neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, oculocutaneous albinos, leprosy, measles, tuberculosis, HIV infection, cancer treatment, nutritional deficiency, war injuries etc.
3. Leprosy cured person – These are persons who were previously suffering from leprosy but now they are free from all symptoms of leprosy. They are called leprosy cured person because they don’t need to take anti-leprosy medicine anymore and also their skin is not contagious.
4. Hearing impairment (deaf and hard of hearing)- Deaf is the inability to hear properly while hard of hearing refers to those with normal hearing ability but still face difficulties in understanding speech. The main cause of these two disability are noise induced hearing loss, tinnitus, ear infection, head injury, ototoxic medication, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere’s disease, presbycusis, acoustic neuroma, mumps, sudden deafness, Menière’s syndrome, noise exposure, high frequency hearing loss, noise pollution and other environmental factors like loud music, background noise, smoking, alcohol consumption etc.
5. Locomotor disability – This is the group of people who are unable to walk without any assistance device. The major causes of locomotor disability include polio, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifuda, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, post poliomyelitis syndrome, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Charcot Marie tooth disease, bone fracture, deformity, hip replacement surgery, lower back pain, leg amputation, foot drop, foot deformities, gout, fibromyalgia, orthopedic problems, metabolic disorder, scoliosis, joint dislocations, osteoporosis, kidney failure, lung diseases, liver diseases, heart attack, myocardial infarction, thyroid dysfunction, respiratory system diseases, emphysema, asthma, constipation, varicose veins, rickets, sickle cell anemia, leukemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, peptic ulcer, hypertension, obesity, alcoholism, pregnancy complications, neurological disorders, vertigo, migraine, dementia, senility, schizophrenia, urinary incontinence, epilepsy, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette Syndrome, learning disability, dyslexia, developmental delay, dwarfism, short stature, dwarfism etc.
6. Dwarfism – This is a specific form of locomotor disability where the height of the individual is very small. The causes for dwarfism are autosomal recessive inheritance, hormonal disorders, pituitary gland abnormalities, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, Beckwith Wiedeman syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Noonan syndrome, ectodermal dysplasia, Mowat–Wilson syndrome, Rubenstein Taybi syndrome, Wolf Hirschhorn syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Ataxia telangiectasis, alpha thalassaemia, beta thalassaemia, Hemoglobinopathies, glycogen storage disease type IV, Fanconi anaemia, Lesch Nyhan disease, Niemann Pick Disease, Spastic Paraplegia 5, Usher syndrome, Refsum disease, mucopolysaccharide diseases, cartilage hair hypoplasia, chondrodysplasia punctate, Stickler syndrome, Larsen syndrome, Hunter syndrome, Canavan disease, Papillon–Lebreton syndrome, Ehlers Danlos syndrome, Down syndrome, Duchenne Muscular dystrophy, Becker dystrophies, Emery Dreifuss syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscle disorder, Laing–Donohue syndromes, Marinesco–Sjögren syndrome, Pearson’s anomaly, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Perlman syndrome, Schimke immunodeficiency syndrome, Smith–Lankford syndrome, TAR syndrome, Aarskog–Scott syndrome, Waardenberg–Rendu syndrome, Mal de Maledaison syndrome, Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Krabbe disease, Batten disease, Canavan–Krabbe disease, Hurler–Scheie syndrome, Farber disease, Sly syndrome, GM1 gangliosidosis, Sandhoff disease, Morquio B syndrome, Multiple sulphatase deficiency, Mucolipidosis III, Maroteaux IIICarter syndrome, Wolman disease, Pseudoxanthomas elasticum, Severe combined immune deficiency, Tay–Sachs disease, Gaucher disease, Niemann–Pick disease type A, Fabry disease, Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Bloom syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, Ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, Werner syndrome, Secundum atrial septal defect, Coats plus, Neurofibromatosis 1, Progeria, Goldenhar syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Fragile X, Russell Silver syndrome, Alexander disease, Kleefstra syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Rett syndrome, MECP2 duplication syndrome, Dandy–Walker malformation, Pallister–Killian syndrome, Tuberous sclerosis, Klippel–Feil syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence, CHARGE syndrome, Jacobson phocomelia, Kabuki syndrome, Meckel syndrome, Alport syndrome, Jeune syndrome, Costello syndrome, Ellis van Birkenbeck syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Norrie disease, Senior–Løvenkrands syndrome, VATER association, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Treacher Collins syndrome, Diamond–Blackfan anemia, Shwartz–Ziv–Deese syndrome, Van der wollard–van der Reker syndrome, Poland syndrome, Pitt–Hopkins syndrome, Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome, Andersen disease, Carpenter syndrome, Erb–Wagenbach syndrome, Loeffler–Jensen syndrome, Zellwegger spectrum, Carta–Jackhammer syndrome, Duane syndrome, Segawa syndrome, May–Hegglin anomaly, Legius syndrome, Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Mowat–Wilson syndrome, Naegeli–Fraser syndrome, McKusick–Kearns–White syndrome, Mohr–Trane–Albright syndrome, Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome, Weill–Marres–Michelsen syndrome, Schopmann–Schulz–Passarge syndrome, Saethre–Chahroudaki syndrome, Noonans syndrome, MECP2 mutation associated encephalopathy, Perrault syndrome, Cat eye syndrome, Ohdo–Madaus syndrome, Fryns’ syndrome, Lejeune–Chevalier syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Meier–Slemmer syndrome, Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, Rothmund Thomson syndrome, Roberts syndrome, CHST13 related severe sensory neuropathy, Hunter syndrome, COQ2 deficient megaloblastic anemia, Leukocyte adhesion deficiency, Hereditary sialuria, Dubowitz syndrome, Mandible–Mulder–Fahlbusch syndrome, Walker–Warburg syndrome, Alpers–Syndrome, Hailey–Hailey disease, Carney complex, Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, Von Hippel–Lindau disease, McCune–Albright syndrome, Gardner’s syndrome, Muir–Torre syndrome, Basal cell nevus syndrome, Proteus syndrome, Bloch–Shaktanghul syndrome, Gor
If you enjoyed reading this article and would like to see similar ones.
Please click on this link!